# Diagram based broken tooth diagram completed diagram

All of us engage in and make use of valid reasoning, but the reasoning we actually perform differs in various ways from the inferences studied by most formal logicians. Reasoning as performed by human beings typically involves information obtained through more than one medium. Formal logic, by contrast, has thus far been primarily concerned with valid reasoning which is based on information in one form only, i.

Recently, many philosophers, psychologists, logicians, mathematicians, and computer scientists have become increasingly aware of the importance of multi-modal reasoning and, moreover, much research has been undertaken in the area of non-symbolic, especially diagrammatic, representation systems.

Diagrams or pictures probably rank among the oldest forms of human communication. They are not only used for representation but can also be used to carry out certain types of reasoning, and hence play a particular role in logic and mathematics. However, sentential representation systems e. Diagrams are usually adopted as a heuristic tool in exploring a proof, but not as part of a proof.

Challenging a long-standing prejudice against diagrammatic representation, those working on multi-modal reasoning have taken different kinds of approaches which we may categorize into three distinct groups. One branch of research can be found in philosophy of mind and cognitive science.

Since the limits of linguistic forms are clear to those who have been working on mental representation and reasoning, some philosophers and cognitive scientists have embraced this new direction of multi-modal reasoning with enthusiasm and have explored human reasoning and mental representation involving non-linguistic forms Cummins ; Chandrasekaran et al.

Another strand of work on diagrammatic reasoning shows that there is no intrinsic difference between symbolic and diagrammatic systems as far as their logical status goes. Some logicians have presented case studies to prove that diagrammatic systems can be sound and complete in the same sense as symbolic systems. This type of result directly refuted a widely-held assumption that diagrams are inherently misleading, and abolished theoretical objections to diagrams being used in proofs Shin ; Hammer a.

A third direction in multi-modal reasoning has been taken by computer scientists, whose interest is much more practical than those of the other groups. We have the following goals for this entry. First of all, we would like to acquaint the reader with the details of some specific diagrammatic systems. At the same time, the entry will address theoretical issues, by exploring the nature of diagrammatic representation and reasoning in terms of expressive power and correctness. The case study of the second section will not only satisfy our first goal but also provide us with solid material for the more theoretical and general discussion in the third section.

As mentioned above, the topic of diagrams has attracted much attention with important results from many different research areas. Hence, our fifth section aims to introduce various approaches to diagrammatic reasoning taken in different areas.

## Teeth Names and Numbers: Diagram, Names, Number, and Conditions

The following quotation from Chandrasekaran et al. As we will see below, logicians focus on external diagrammatic systems, the imagery debate among philosophers of mind and cognitive scientists is mainly about internal diagrams, and research on the cognitive role of diagrams touches on both forms.

The dominance of sentential representation systems in the history of modern logic has obscured several important facts about diagrammatic systems. One of them is that several well-known diagrammatic systems were available as a heuristic tool before the era of modern logic.

Another interesting, but neglected, story is that a founder of modern symbolic logic, Charles Peirce, not only revised Venn diagrams but also invented a graphical system, Existential Graphs, which has been proven to be equivalent to a predicate language Peirce ; Roberts ; Zeman These existing diagrams have inspired those researchers who have recently drawn our attention to multi-modal representation.

Logicians who participate in the project have explored the subject in two distinct ways. First, their interest has focused exclusively on externally-drawn representation systems, as opposed to internal mental representations.

Second, their aim has been to establish the logical status of a system, rather than to explain its heuristic power, by testing the correctness and the expressive power of selective representation systems. Second, we will observe different emphases given to different stages of extension and modification of a diagrammatic system. Thirdly and relatedly, this historical development illustrates an interesting tension and trade-off between the expressive power and visual clarity of diagrammatic systems.

Most importantly, the reader will witness logicians tackle the issue of whether there is any intrinsic reason that sentential systems, but not diagrammatic systems, could provide us with rigorous proofs, and their success in answering this question in the negative.A Venn diagram is a visual depiction of the similarities and differences between two or more different items.

It consists of a series of shapes - usually circles - whose edges overlap. While it's not required that you use a circle, it's probably the most convenient shape because several circles can overlap easily. Each shape represents some group or entity. Characteristics the two entities have in common are found where the shapes overlap. Items unique to only one entity are written in the non-overlapping part of their respective shapes. If all the features of one entity are among additional features of another entity, the entire shape of the first entity is contained within that of the second.

Venn diagrams are useful in any situation requiring a direct comparison of two or more categories or concepts. Their function varies from an informative poster to a decision-making tool.

Watch this quick video tutorial on creating Venn diagrams with SmartDraw. Browse SmartDraw's entire collection of Venn diagram examples and templates. Learn More. Venn Diagram What is a Venn Diagram? The first step to creating a Venn diagram is deciding what to compare. Place a descriptive title at the top of the page. Create the diagram.

Make a circle for each of the subjects. Every circle should overlap with at least one other circle. Label each circle. Near or inside of each circle place the name of the topic or item which the circle represents.

Avoid writing the titles inside neighboring circles in order to maintain clarity. It may be useful to distinguish the titles from other text by placing them in a box or altering their font or color. Enter the differences. Inside each circle place characteristics that are unique to that specific item or idea, and are not true of any of the other topics.

Enter the similarities. If two or more subjects have a feature in common, place that feature in the section in which all such shapes overlap. Get Started Sign up for SmartDraw free. Works on your Mac or any other device. Management Cycle.Last Updated: June 14, Greg Arbour 2 min read. It can be useful if the maintenance team is coming up short when troubleshooting an issue.

Every possible cause is categorized into a more overall, generic reason. Causes are then reduced again and again until you can isolate the probable outcome or means to an end. This is a casual way to assess a situation and outline what the cause of the problem could potentially be. The concept behind this casual processing is to allow yourself the opportunity to trace the steps that could have led up to the malfunction or problem.

Take an aircraft for example, assume the ground crew engineer discovers that a compressor is malfunctioning. There are many possibilities, but by using fishbone diagrams, you can break the problem down into main categories. In this instance, for example, you could isolate the issue as follows:. This is the first step. In step 2, you could break it down even further. You can now expand on the primary categories and see if you can identify the factor that caused the overall effect:.

The information that you have linked off of the first stem of ideas brings you closer to discovering the cause of the problem. You have identified the main possibilities and now you can expand again even more in depth by choosing the most probable outcome, for example:. The mechanic installed a part incorrectly which caused a malfunction causing the turbine to become damaged during a flight.

Now that this hypothesis has been created, the inspection should look for certain traits isolating the entire search reducing the down time of the aircraft. Even better, if this sort of problem is documented, there can be preventative and predictable maintenance making sure malfunctions such as this are avoided in the future.

In a previous blog, we introduced the 5 whys method of troubleshooting which is a simple tool to help increase the chances of isolating the root cause of an issue. The fishbone diagram is another handy tool for troubleshooting any mechanical, electrical or operational issue. As demonstrated in the example above, allow yourself to isolate and categorize the potential problems into subcategories making the troubleshooting fluent and efficient.

In the case of the Aircraft example, knowing certain mechanical failures could possibly reoccur, you could store the part onsite or you could introduce more regular inspections to prevent further failures and minimize downtime. A fishbone diagram allows simple but logical process of elimination which leads to faster problem resolution, ensuring your business reduces down time and increases productivity.

Get the guide. How do fishbone diagrams work? You can now expand on the primary categories and see if you can identify the factor that caused the overall effect: Materials: the raw basic parts New parts may have been installed improperly A part is malfunctioning or was not inspected properly Personal: anyone working on the aircraft A technician installed the compressor incorrectly Some tools may be left inside the compressor housing Their was something jamming the rotation of the compressors that the mechanic missed The pilot pushed the compressor too far and may have damaged it during the flight Environment Bird strike Measurements: inspection Turbine was inspected and compressor wear was noted The inventory for the aircrafts parts and labour lists all of the pieces and staff who were active around the aircraft in a 48hr span The information that you have linked off of the first stem of ideas brings you closer to discovering the cause of the problem.The sign above says that nothing over five tons is allowed because it will do damage to the structure.

There are limits to the amount of weight that a bridge can support, there are limits to the number of people that can safely occupy a room, and there are limits to what can go into an electron orbital. The last of the three rules for constructing electron arrangements requires electrons to be placed one at a time in a set of orbitals within the same sublevel.

This minimizes the natural repulsive forces that one electron has for another. The Figure below shows how a set of three p orbitals is filled with one, two, three, and four electrons. Figure 1.

An orbital filling diagram is the more visual way to represent the arrangement of all the electrons in a particular atom. In an orbital filling diagram, the individual orbitals are shown as circles or squares and orbitals within a sublevel are drawn next to each other horizontally. Each sublevel is labeled by its principal energy level and sublevel.

Electrons are indicated by arrows inside the circles. An arrow pointing upwards indicates one spin direction, while a downward pointing arrow indicates the other direction. The orbital filling diagrams for hydrogen, helium, and lithium are shown in Figure below. According to the Aufbau process, sublevels and orbitals are filled with electrons in order of increasing energy.

Since the s sublevel consists of just one orbital, the second electron simply pairs up with the first electron as in helium. The next element is lithium and necessitates the use of the next available sublevel, the 2 s.

The filling diagram for carbon is shown in the Figure below. There are two 2 p electrons for carbon and each occupies its own 2 p orbital. Oxygen has four 2 p electrons.

After each 2 p orbital has one electron in it, the fourth electron can be placed in the first 2 p orbital with a spin opposite that of the other electron in that orbital. Use the link below to carry out the following exercise:. Skip to main content.There are two sets of teeth in human beings; the first are named primary or baby teeth and permanent or adult teeth. The collection of teeth that replaces primary teeth are called succedaneous or permanent dentition. Current recommendations are to see a dentist as soon as the child turns a year old.

A dentist can better explain teeth names and teeth numbers so you can identify them. It is essential to see a dentist if your child does not start to get teeth within the year. The first visit will get your child familiar with the dentist.

Impacted Wisdom Teeth Removal Animation)

Teaching them helps develop lifelong oral health habits that will apply to adult teeth. For most parents, by the age of 7, the child will start to lose their baby teeth. Teeth name position in the mouth makes it easier for the dentists to identify them for treatment.

The mouth consists of several parts: tongue, gums, teeth, lips, cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. The teeth are held within the jaw bones and serve several vital functions beyond permitting you to chew. Your teeth allow you to speak clearly and accurately and contribute to your facial appearance and shape. The gingival surrounds the teeth and grips the jaw bone, making a security barrier. Their names should be recognized fully to avoid confusion and to facilitate quality dental care for example, right mandibular second molar.

Given that there are four-second molars, naming the quadrant right mandibularwhich specifies the second molar, makes it easy to recognize.

The human teeth are arranged symmetrically in the mouth, and it is possible to know teeth names and teeth numbers. Dentists have designated each tooth name with hence, teeth names in English.

Cuspids are synonymous with canines, while bicuspids are also known as premolars. The six-year molar is also called the first permanent molar. The twelve-year molar is used synonymously with second permanent molar while the wisdom teeth so-called because of their late eruption are called third molars.

The teeth in the front of the mouth, such as incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, are called anterior teeth. Posterior teeth comprise of teeth located in the back of the mouth, and they are known as premolars and molars.

The mandibular is the name given to the teeth in the lower jaw, while maxillary is the group name of the teeth in the upper jaw. Teeth names and position in the mouth makes it easier for the dentists to identify them for treatment.

The shapes of the teeth help in positioning them. Teeth are given names by the positions they occupy in the mouth.

Each of these teeth numbers is either positioned in the lower jaw or upper jaw. Those who are in the lower jaw are known as mandibular, and those in the upper jaw are identified as maxillary. Also, the side of the face i.Fishbone diagrams are used widely to identify root causes and to find potential solutions. In this article, we try to provide free and editable fishbone diagram templates in powerpoint, excel, and Visio formats. These templates are then followed by how you can use fishbone diagram template in healthcare and manufacturing industries with specific examples.

What is a fishbone diagram? Fishbone diagram is a diagram based approach for systems thinking. Fishbone diagram was developed by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa in the year A visual tool for organizing critical thinking, thereby helping us in finding the process improvement methods. The template has an image of cute fish with its mouth and tail fin in royal blue color.

### 15 Authorized Fishbone Diagram Templates : Powerpoint, Excel & Visio

The eyes are in hues of green and blue. The rest of the body of the fish along with fins is in light steel blue consisting of a spine in blue with three dots in red, green and yellow. From each of the dots, there are two slanting lines on both sides.

There you can add text for demonstrating the cause-effect process. Fishbone diagram template 2. With a small mouth in front of which you need to write your effect, the template features the categories of causes in white on a blue background.

There are four colored dots on the spine that makes the template appealing. The attractive template is ideal for showcasing causes of some positive effect. Fishbone diagram template 3. The template features only the mouth and the tail fin of a fish along with spines, at the rear end of each there are spherical shapes to write the causes of the effect.

The fish is in steel blue color while the spherical shapes are in sky blue with text in contrasting white.

Fishbone diagram template 4. Are you looking desperately for a fishbone diagram template by which you can demonstrate the multiple causes of a poor quality product or accurate inventory?

If yes, such effects are best to be demonstrated by this awesome template in a combination of black, white and blue. The template has ample space to include the causes in as many as twelve different spherical shapes. Fishbone diagram template 5. The template has a fish colored in an unconventional green beige with its spine in black. It has dedicated space to include causes of an effect in eight different categories on a white background.

The template is best suitable for depicting causes for late arrival at work or poor customer retention. Fishbone diagram template 6. The template features an image of a big fish in black on a white background with fins and tail fin. The spine of the fish, however, is in contrasting white with four dots at equal distance. You have ample space to write the causes in white on a black background. However, you can always customize the template as per your preferred color to depict the cause-effect relationship.

Fishbone diagram template 7. The template is a cute one with a diagram of fish in dark red depicting only the mouth with a big eye, spine and a tail fin on a white background.

There are again three horizontal lines from each of the spine bones to depict the sub-causes of the effect. Fishbone diagram template 8. The template is extremely simple and features an image of fish with scales on its body in light red on a white background.Sequence diagrams describe interactions among classes in terms of an exchange of messages over time.

They're also called event diagrams. A sequence diagram is a good way to visualize and validate various runtime scenarios. These can help to predict how a system will behave and to discover responsibilities a class may need to have in the process of modeling a new system.

Start with one of SmartDraw's included sequence diagram templates. You'll notice that all the notations and symbols you need are docked to the left of your drawing area. Simply stamp them to your page and connect the symbols. Class Roles or Participants Class roles describe the way an object will behave in context. Use the UML object symbol to illustrate class roles, but don't list object attributes. Activation or Execution Occurrence Activation boxes represent the time an object needs to complete a task.

When an object is busy executing a process or waiting for a reply message, use a thin gray rectangle placed vertically on its lifeline. Messages Messages are arrows that represent communication between objects. Use half-arrowed lines to represent asynchronous messages. Asynchronous messages are sent from an object that will not wait for a response from the receiver before continuing its tasks. For message types, see below.

Lifelines Lifelines are vertical dashed lines that indicate the object's presence over time. This object is removed from memory. When that object's lifeline ends, you can place an X at the end of its lifeline to denote a destruction occurrence.

Loops A repetition or loop within a sequence diagram is depicted as a rectangle. Place the condition for exiting the loop at the bottom left corner in square brackets [ ]. Synchronous Message A synchronous message requires a response before the interaction can continue. It's usually drawn using a line with a solid arrowhead pointing from one object to another.

Asynchronous Message Asynchronous messages don't need a reply for interaction to continue. Like synchronous messages, they are drawn with an arrow connecting two lifelines; however, the arrowhead is usually open and there's no return message depicted.